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ODRŽIVO STANOVANJE drvo, ovčja vuna i slama izazovi i potencijali tradicionalnih prirodnih materijala


Dvije trećine energije koja se utroši u građevinarstvu u Evropi odnosi se na stanovanje. S porastom broja stanovnika rastu i zahtjevi za novim stambenim objektima što uzrokuje dodatno povećanje potrošnje energija i emisije CO2 za izgradnju, održavanje, rasvjetu, ventilaciju, hlađenje i grijanje istih.
Zarad svega iznešenoga osnovna zadaća građevinske industrije, s posebnim akcentom na objekte stanovanja, treba biti usmjerena na iznalaženje rješenja kojima će se smanjivati zahtjevi za energijom i emisija CO2.
Analize životnog vijeka materijala kojim su izgrađeni građevinski objekti pokazuju da isti imaju najveći uticaj na potrošnju energije i emisiju CO2. Upravo materijali, od momenta prerade, transporta i ugradnje, a posebno u periodu korištenja objekta mogu doprinijeti smanjenju potreba za energijom, odnosno dovesti do smanjenja ukupnih zagađenja. Iz navedenih razloga u fokusu ove knjige su prirodni materijali drvo, ovčja vuna i slama. Ova tri materijala su kontinuirano prisutni, rastu u prirodi zbog čega je neophodno plansko održivo upravljanje ovim resursima. Pored toga, to su prirodni materijali koji imaju izražena termička svojstva te se mogu koristiti kao izolacioni materijali. Pomenuti materijali su utkani u našu tradiciju.
Kod odabira materijala postoje savremeni kriteriji održivosti koje je neophodno poštovati: ušteda energije, zdravlje čovjeka, raspoloživost resursa, jednostavnost proizvodnje, vremenski period, stabilnost, otpornost na požar, estetika, sigurnost, mogućnost prefabrikacije, fleksibilnost, jednostavnost održavanja, dugotrajnost, mogućnost recikliranja i ponovnog korištenja, te uticaj na okoliš.
Analizama svakog materijala pojedinačno testirani su navedeni kriteriji da bi se ukazalo na prednosti i mogućnosti ispunjavanja zahtjeva, odnosno da bi se ukazalo na mane i način prevazilaženja istih. Rezultati pokazuju da testirani prirodni materijali mogu zadovoljiti zahtjevne kriterije. Urađene kalkulacije i simulacije dodatno dokazuju da analizirani materijali doprinose smanjenju globalnog zagrijavanja, smanjenja primarne energije i emisije CO2 te stvaranja eko balansa u prirodi.
Kako je Bosna i Hercegovina bogata ovim materijalima, analizirane su i prilike ekonomskog prosperiteta kroz razvoj čistih tehnologija korištenjem ovih materijala u građevinskoj industriji. Analize su rađene kroz razradu dva scenarija. Kroz oba scenarija analizirani su efekti na broj novih radnih mjesta, uticaj korištenih građevinskih materijala na okoliš, kao i eko balans lokalnih proizvoda. Utvrđeno je da su efekti scenarija BAU (uobičajene prakse) štetniji za okoliš i zdravlje ljudi, nemaju traženi učinak na stvaranje novih radnih mjesta te da se u predmetnom scenariju koriste materijali koji uglavnom nisu proizvedeni lokalno. S druge strane ECO scenario na sva tri analizirana efekta pokazuje rezultate koji optimiziraju građevinsku industriju, pospješuju ekonomski razvoj stvaranjem većeg broja novih radnih mjesta i, kao najvažnije a što i jeste primarni cilj održive građevinske industrije, smanjuju potrebe za energijom i doprinose velikom smanjenju emisija CO2. ECO scenario podrazumijeva uvođenje savremenih čistih tehnologija u tretiranje ovih materijala i doprinosi ne samo ekonomskom prosperitetu i balansiranom razvoju cijele teritorije Bosne i Hercegovine, već utiče i na zaštitu okoliša i zdravlje ljudi.

Da bi ECO scenario zaživio na ovim prostorima potrebna je mobilizacija svih aktera građevinskog sektora: kreatori politika, naučni i istraživački centri, građevinske kompanije i industrije, kreativni inžinjerski timovi - dizajneri građevinskih objekata koji kroz interdisciplinarni pristup i timski rad planiraju stambena naselja i objekte, investitori i naravno svi građani. Svi akteri moraju imati jedinstvenu viziju održivosti i moraju se ujediniti u nastojanjima da se ta ista vizija sprovede. Država BiH treba da prepozna ECO scenario kao strateški scenario razvoja građevinskog sektora te da razvije programe kojima će se obezbjediti podrška inovacijama, čistim tehnologijama, razmjeni znanja i vještina i stvaranju jakog partnerstva između svih aktera u procesu.

Bosna i Hercegovina je zemlja bogata ljudima i prirodnim resursima koja može iskoristiti prednost razvoja održivim upravljanjem prirodnih resursa i kvalifikovanom radnom snagom kroz razvoj čistih tehnologija na teritoriji cijele države. Balansiranim razvojem stvorili bi se bolji uslovi za život, smanjila migracija stanovništva, a mladim ljudima pružila šansa za život i budućnost u Bosni i Hercegovini.
Na putu pridruživanja Evropskoj uniji postoje Fondovi predpristupne pomoći (IPA) koji Bosni i Hercegovini stoje na raspolaganju. Ti fondovi mogu biti korišteni za podršku održivom razvoju građevinskog sektora jedino kad se Bosna i Hercegovina opredijeli za ispunjavanje strateških ciljeva EU 20/20/20, harmonizira zakone i standarde i usvoji strateške planove kojima će doći do ispunjenja ovih zadanih ciljeva. Na taj način ubrzao bi se proces pridruživanja Bosne i Hercegovine Evropskoj uniji što jeste cilj svih građana Bosne i Hercegovine.

Summary

Next to wellbeing and comfort, technological advancements brought a sense of superiority of human kind over nature. Unfortunately, that same unfounded sense of superiority of man over nature resulted in the loss of bond – the connection between human beings and nature. The human alienation from nature led to our own imperilment of survival on the Planet, causing considerable climate change, pollution and the extinction of a number of plants and animal species. On the other hand, nature is perfect. In nature, we find answers to all questions, problems and concerns. The modern human does not understand the advantage of working with nature and fails to use it.
Presently, almost all human activities (agriculture, transport, industry, construction sector, etc) have an adverse impact on the environment. The construction sector alone accounts for more than 40% of the total energy consumption and emission of CO2.
Two thirdsof energy used in the construction sector in Europe goes to housing. As the number of residents grows, their requirements for new housing increase, causing additional increase in energy consumption and new CO2 for construction, maintenance, lighting, ventilation, cooling and heating of new buildings 

Therefore, in light of the above, the main task of the construction sector, focusing in particular on housing, should be to find a solution to reduce energy demand and emission of CO2 .
Life-cycle assessments of materials used in construction sector show that they have the largest impact on energy consumption and CO2 emission. These materials, from the moment of processing, transport and installation, and especially during use, may contribute to reducing our energy demands, and lead to the reduction of overall pollution rates. For those reasons, this thesis focuses on natural materials such as wood, sheep wool and straw. These three materials are continually present, growing in nature. Their management needs to be planned. Additionally, these are natural materials with strong thermic qualities, apt for use as insulation materials.
In choosing materials, one should follow modern sustainability criteria: saving energy, human health, availability of resources, simplicity of production, time, stability, fire resistance, visual elegance, safety, possibility to refabricate, flexibility, simplicity of maintenance, longevity, possibility to recycle and reuse, and environmental impact.
In the analyses of each material, the aforementioned criteria were used to demonstrate their potential to meet all requirements and to identify weaknesses and ways to overcome them. Results show that natural materials which were tested can meet demanding criteria. The calculations and simulations done show that analyzed materials contribute also to the reduction of global warming, primary energy demand and reduction of CO2 emissions. They positively affect eco-balance in nature.
Given that Bosnia and Herzegovina is rich in these materials, analysis also focused on economic development opportunities by means of developing clean technologies and using these materials in the construction sector. The analysis included two scenarios. Both scenarios analyzed the effects on job creation, impact of used construction materials on the environment and eco balance of local products. The analysis showed that effects of the BAU scenario (usual practice) are more harmful for the environment and human health, do not result in desired job creation and rely on the use of non-locally sourced materials. On the other hand, the ECO scenario shows optimization of the construction industry, advancement of economic development through job creation, and most importantly, result in sustainable construction industry, reduce energy demand and contribute to reduction of CO2 emissions. The ECO scenario includes the introduction of modern clean technologies in the treatment of these materials. This contributes to economic prosperity and balanced development on the territory of the entire Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a positive impact on environmental protection and human health. All construction sector stakeholders: policy makers, scientific and research centers, construction companies and industries, creative engineering teams – designers of facilities acting in interdisciplinary teams planning settlements and building, investors and all citizens must be involved in order for the ECO scenario to become the norm. All stakeholders must share the vision of sustainability and unite themselves in their efforts of making that vision a reality. The State of Bosnia and Herzegovina should recognize the ECO scenario as the strategic scenario for the development of the construction sector, and develop programs to secure support to innovation, clean technologies, knowledge transfer and the creation of strong partnership among all stakeholders.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is abundant with human and natural resources to exploit the advantage of development by sustainable management of natural resources and a qualified work force to support clean technologies development throughout its territory. Balanced development would lead to better standard of life,
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lessen population migration and offer a better chance for life and future in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The European Union offers Instrument of Pre-accession Assistance funding to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This funding may be used to support sustainable development of the construction sector only when Bosnia and Herzegovina undertakes to fulfil the strategic objective of EU 20/20/20, harmonizes its laws and standards, and adopts strategic plans to fulfil these goals. That would speed up the accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union, which is the goal of all BiH citizens.